Padded satin stitch (laid work padding)
Padded satin stitch is a satin stitch with padding underneath the stitching to create a raised motif. This technique catches the light, particularly in monochrome embroidery.
This method of padding is the use of laid work (long stitches); for an alternative method see the entry for Padded satin stitch (split stitch padding).
Padded satin stitch was used in Ming-era China using either a coarser thread than the silk which was used for the satin stitch itself or sometimes even cloth or paper (it is unclear whether the padding was laid work or split stitch). The stitch was also used as part of the Kyoto tradition in Japan (the tradition dates from the 8th century although the stitch itself may not be as early).
Different European Whitework traditions used padded satin stitch: Mountmellick embroidery from Eire; Omvendt Udklipshedebo as part of the Hedebo tradition in Denmark; Venetian embroidery (noted for its heavily padded satin stitch) and French embroidery (similar to Broderie Anglaise but with petals filled with padded satin stitch, rather than cut out), and later Broderie Anglaise.
Using a thicker thread, make the first stitch for padding in the middle of the shape, across the longest part of the shape.
Bring the needle up next to where the first stitch ended, and make another stitch parallel to the first. Continue stitching back and forth across the area. Laid work is used for this padding in order to minimise the amount of thread on the back of the fabric.
When you have filled the first half, return to the middle and fill the second half.
Work the next layer of padding at a different angle from the first, starting in the middle and working outwards. Start again in the middle and work to the other end to complete the second layer.
Stitch the third layer in the same way at another angle. Ideally, the last layer should be perpendicular to the final satin stitch.
Work satin stitch with your chosen thread over the padding. See Satin stitch for further information.
Structure of stitch
Jacqui McDonald, RSN Essential Stitch Guides: Crewelwork (2010)
Various Authors, The Royal School of Needlework Book of Embroidery (2018) , p.331
Schuyler Cammann. (1962) 'Embroidery Techniques in Old China', Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America pp.16-40. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/20067040
Willem Vogelsang, 'Niku-Ire-Nui', TRC Leiden (2017). Available at: https://www.trc-leiden.nl/trc-needles/techniques/embroidery/embroidery-stitches/niku-ire-nui (Accessed: 25 August 2021)
Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, 'Mountmellick Embroidery', TRC Leiden (2017). Available at: https://www.trc-leiden.nl/trc-needles/regional-traditions/europe-and-north-america/embroideries/mountmellick-embroidery (Accessed: 25 August 2021)
Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, 'Omvendt udklipshedebo', TRC Leiden (2017). Available at: https://www.trc-leiden.nl/trc-needles/regional-traditions/europe-and-north-america/embroideries/omvendt-udklipshedebo-denmark (Accessed: 25 August 2021)
Santina M. Levey, Discovering Embroidery of the 19th Century (1971) , p.11
Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, 'Broderie Anglaise', TRC Leiden (2017). Available at: https://www.trc-leiden.nl/trc-needles/regional-traditions/europe-and-north-america/embroideries/broderie-anglaise (Accessed: 25 August 2021)
Examples of Padded satin stitch (laid work padding)
bed jacket, RSN Collection No. 134
Notes for Padded Satin Stich use here