Buttonhole bars (cutwork)
- Venetian bars
- Festoon stitch
- Brides bouclées
- Brides claires
Cutwork buttonhole bars are buttonhole bars showcased by cutting away the fabric behind them.
Buttonhole bars have been used for centuries within the various European cutwork traditions: Renaissance work (dating from the 15th century, gaining popularity with royalty and nobility in the 16th and 17th centuries) ; Reticella dating from the 16th century onwards which was popular for decorating Elizabethan ruffs and more recently Baldyring embroidery, a 19th century Danish development of Reticella (part of the Hedebo tradition).
Buttonhole bars also feature on 17th century European whitework samplers as shown by several in the Victoria and Albert Museum’s collection.
Bring the needle up on the right, just outside the double running stitch, and down on the left. Make two more stitches: left to right, then right to left. The three threads across the gap should be taut, even a little too tight.
Bring the needle up on the left and begin to work buttonhole stitch across the three long stitches. Pass the needle eye-first under the threads from top to bottom, leaving a loop and then pass the needle through the loop.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 across the bar, keeping the stitches close together and with an even tension. To finish the bar take the needle down outside the running stitch line.
Repeat buttonhole stitch around the edges of the square, this time stitching through the fabric.
Begin to trim the fabric away by first cutting from the middle to each end, and then from the middle to each side. Insert the scissors so that the flat of the blade rests against the stitches; this way the stitches will not be cut. Use small snipping movements to gradually trim away the fabric. Sometimes it is useful to turn to the back.
Structure of stitch
Buttonhole bars allow you to cut away larger shapes by creating a network of supports.
Jennifer Campbell, Ann-Marie Bakewell, Guide to Embroidery Stitches (2004) , p.28
'V&A guide to embroidery styles', Victoria and Albert Museum (2021). Available at: https://www.vam.ac.uk/articles/embroidery-styles-an-illustrated-guide (Accessed: 19 October 2021)
Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, 'Reticella', TRC Leiden (2017). Available at: https://www.trc-leiden.nl/trc-needles/techniques/lace-making/reticella (Accessed: 19 October 2021)
'1600 cutwork cover', Victoria and Albert Museum (2021). Available at: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O363238/cover-unknown/ (Accessed: 19 October 2021)
'Baldyring', TRC Leiden (2017). Available at: https://www.trc-leiden.nl/trc-needles/regional-traditions/europe-and-north-america/embroideries/baldyring-denmark (Accessed: 25 August 2021)
'17th century German whitework sampler', Victoria and Albert Museum (2021). Available at: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O70238/sampler-boten-lucke/ (Accessed: 19 October 2021)
'17th century whitework sampler', Victoria and Albert Museum (2021). Available at: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O359932/sampler-mason-margret/ (Accessed: 19 October 2021)